Tuesday, 17 April 2012

HI friends,

Obtain is a general magazine that i have done for my project, i could know about the efforts taken by a designer when i went through my training. I share this blog with an idea of giving how a magazine is produced, i hope this will be useful for you...


Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications that are printed with ink on paper, generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three, the library technical sense a "magazine" paginates with each issue starting at page one. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are generally professional magazines.
Magazines can be distributed through the mail; through sales by newsstands, bookstores or other vendors; or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations. Sales models for distribution fall into three main categories.

Paid circulation

In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Examples from the UK include Private Eye and PC Pro.

Non-Paid Circulation

This means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline in-flight magazines or included with other products or publications. An example from the UK and Australia is TNT Magazine.

Controlled circulation

This is the model used by "insider magazines" or industry-based publications distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free and determined by some form of survey. This latter model was widely used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines, including:

Types of Magazines:

*   Shelter magazines (home design and decorating)


Any attempt to classify all of the forms of magazine articles   would   probably   prove to   be inadequate. However, certain characteristics do tend to identify seven general categories.  These categories frequently overlap, and the dividing lines that separate them often become blurred. Even so, this classification serves as a starting point for learning to recognize the various types of   magazine   articles.   This   knowledge   is necessary before you can even consider writing for the magazine industry. For our purposes, there are seven basic types of magazine articles. They are as follows: Personality sketch Personal experience Confession Narrative Utility Interview Feature Personality Sketch the personality sketch is a short biography that includes an individual’s achievements. The “purpose of an article of this type, whether a success article or a profile, is to portray the intimate details of character and personality of someone. The person may be widely known, one who has achieved some form of greatness or someone whose life is in some way interesting or remarkable. The individual does not have to be a famous show business or political personality; this type of story could just as well be written about a Navy person. A Navy jet pilot who adopted an entire orphanage of Japanese children was the subject of an article of this kind. Another dealt with a sailor aboard a destroyer who spent his reenlistment bonus on football equipment so his shipmates could compete against the crewmembers of larger Navy ships.  Still other sketches have been written about Navy scientists, combat heroes, chaplains, test pilots and athletes. Personal Experience Unusual adventures, unique accomplishments, rare travel experiences and countless other personal experiences lend themselves to treatment in this type of article. “My 60 Days under the Sea in an Atomic Submarine,”  “I fly With the Blue Angels” and “I Walked on the Moon” is typical titles of personal experience   articles. Thousands of Navy men and women have had exciting   personal   experiences   they might   have developed into good magazine articles.  Quite often, however, they do not have the ability, the time or the inclination   to   write   these   experiences   on paper. Nevertheless, they   usually   will   talk   about   their experiences, which can provide a good story opportunist y for a journalist in search of ideas. When you write this type of article, use the “as told to...” byline. You should also use caution when writing in the first person. The frequent use of “I” can become, or appear, egotistical. Confession The confession article is not necessarily a “shocker” or scandal story.  Instead, it is an “inside story” of conditions   or   problems   normally   unfamiliar      to the average reader.  The confession article often involves handicaps or disadvantages that are overcome by determination and common sense. Incidents related in confession articles are often typical of everyday life.  A spoiled, rich kid learns discipline and responsibility aboard a Navy destroyer. A midshipman’s determination   to   overcome   a   speech defect saves his Navy career.  A young man cures a morbid fear of water by joining the Navy. Subjects like these have been used in confession articles. The most noticeable characteristic of the confession story is the intimate, confidential tone in which the writer seems to be personally revealing a secret to the reader. Although the subject matter is personal, it must evoke an emphatic response from the reader. Humor should not be overlooked in this type of article.  An individual’s willingness to tell the story shows that he or she is not ashamed. If humor can be injected   into   the   account,   it   indicates   an   objective approach. Some subjects are best when given a humorous treatment.  Many interesting   articles   about   common phobias, such as a visit to the dentist, have been written that way. This approach often helps readers to see that most of the fear is unfounded. If the humor is skillfully handled, the readers will probably be amused.

     Keep in mind, though, that humor must fit the situation.  Flippant treatment of serious or distressful subjects will likely alienate your readers. Narrative The narrative is especially suitable for writing about Navy subjects. Sharp characterization, vivid description, dialogue, action and suspense are skillfully woven into the framework of a narrative article to dramatize the facts. However, the facts must be adapted to this type of treatment.  The writer does not invent them, exaggerate them or embellish them in any way. The story must be authentic even in the smallest detail. The real life exploits and adventures of sailors the world over are told in magazine articles using the narrative approach.  A heroic rescue, an epic battle, a dramatic struggle against the elements,  a display of bravery and determination in the face of overwhelming difficulties are all subjects that maybe developed into narrative articles. Careful   research   is   important   in   writing   the narrative article. This is especially true if it is about an event in which many of the magazine’s readers may have participated. An important error or omission will immediately be noted by these people, and they will then be skeptical of the entire article. Also, the writing should be colorful and fast-paced. Otherwise it may sound like a chapter out of a history textbook. Utility any process, product, method or idea that will help the reader becomes wiser, healthier, wealthier or happier is   a   subject for   the   utility   article.   Also   called   the “how-to-do-it” article, the utility article is generally shorter than most other articles and the writing is usually expository or explanatory. The Navy offers a wealth of ideas for the utility article. At one time or another, practically everyone has devised a scheme to improve a job, working conditions or equipment. These ideas are especially valuable if they can be tailored for a  specific  magazine.  There are thousands of trade and employee magazines constantly looking for material of this type.  Editors of Popular Science and Popular Mechanics   build   their   entire magazines around this type of article. The utility article can be compared to a set of instructions presented in an interesting and lively manner.  Writers  should  ask  themselves  the  questions they  feel readers  are  most  likely  to  ask,  then  answer them clearly and simply. Even though some readers may be experts, writers must assume that every reader is unfamiliar with the information and provide complete details. A routine set of instructions for building a simple cabinet can be interesting if it is presented properly. You can use the first, second or third person in writing this article. The personal experience approach can be very effective in the utility article.  The third person style should be used only if the idea presented involves dramatic or entertaining situations. The most common   approach   is   to   use   the   second   person, Interview imperative voice (You fit the wrench  ...). Interview  articles  present  questions  and answers that  offer  a  subject’s  views  on  a  given  topic.  Little background information  is  given  in  the  article  if  the subject is widely known to the readers and the emphasis is  on  the  topic  of  discussion.  The interview requires much advance planning, however, and the writer should research the subject thoroughly before conducting the interview. Each edition of Play boy presents an excellent example of the interview article. The  featurette  is  probably  the  most  popular  and best-selling  short  article  found  in  magazines  today.  It is short and simple, and it contains the element of oddity or humor, and sometimes both.  The purpose of the featurette is to entertain. “Humor  in  Uniform”  and  “Life  in These  United States,” regular sections in  Reader’s  Digest,  are  good examples   of the   featurette. Nearly every   magazine carries at least one anecdote as filler material in each issue.


     The purpose of this section is to create a birds-eye view of the different stages of print production. Someone could, as part of their job, be involved in one or more of these stages. And of course, the person who oversees or in some way coordinates these various stages of the “print job” are often called “print production managers.” Other terms which have been used synonymously to describe the job of “print production” are “graphic production,” “direct mail manager,” “print buyer,” and “printing coordinator.”  Therefore, in the print production realm you’ll often see many similar phrasings to describe what “print production” functions are usually. This is useful to realize when you’re dealing with print production personnel in different companies A print production job generally begins with the client – or customer. This “client” can be a book or magazine publisher or simply a businessperson needing to have brochures designed and printed. When a client or customer wants something printed is when it all begins.

Planning and Preparing Content

The process often begins with the end. The editor and the publisher determine a date that a magazine will reach the reader, and the printer and the circulation department provide deadlines that must be met to accomplish this. Once these dates are established, the scheduling and planning of the magazine can proceed. With most magazines, the stories for each issue are planned several months, even one year, in advance. An idea for a story can come from several sources: the editor, the staff, queries from free-lance writers, and, occasionally, unsolicited manuscripts. The content of each issue is ultimately the responsibility of magazine editors. The staff is typically expected to submit ideas to the editor. They are often the best source of story ideas because they have a more developed understanding of the focus of a magazine.

Client specifications

At the other extreme in client size, a customer might be a person who designed a color brochure on their personal computer. If they took a copy of their file to a local printing company and placed an order for 5,000 copies, for example, they would also become a client.

Graphic Design

Graphic design is defined in “Getting it Printed”, by Kenly and Beach, as the “arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors, and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.” And unless they are working on their own project, they will receive clear specifications from their client of what the end product should look like. The graphic art stage of print production may be handled by a single graphic designer working alone or as part of a graphic design or advertising firm. It could also be managed by a separate graphic design department within their own company. Some of the work done in the graphic design stage might include page layout, typography, illustration, photography, color decisions, and producing a final computer file which would be given to a printing company. During the graphic design stage the client would generally review the artwork and approve the final art before it is considered complete and ready to be handed over to the printing company.


Prepress commonly refers to all the print production functions that take place from the time the printing company receives the artwork — from a graphic designer or customer — up until the actual printing takes place on the printing press. These functions normally include at least some of the following: receiving media files or downloading them from the web; creating a “proof” for client approval; making any changes requested by the client; creating negatives; and finally making the plates that will be used on the press.

The following items have each been considered part of prepress at one time or another

1. Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in graphic form on paper or some other medium. Before the advent of desktop publishing, typesetting of printed material was produced in print shops by compositors or typesetters working by hand, and later with machines.
2. Copy-editing, is the work that an editor does to improve the formatting, style, and accuracy of a manuscript.[1][2] Copy-editing is done prior to the work of proofreaders, who handle documents before final publication.
3. Markup is an artificial language using a set of annotations to text that give instructions regarding the structure of text or how it is to be displayed. Markup languages have been in use for centuries, and in recent years have also been used in computer typesetting and word-processing systems.
4. Proofing involves creating an accurate facsimile of the artwork before beginning production runs. This serves as a bond between the printer and their customer that the final product meets an agreed upon standard. Proofs in general can be done for all parts (images, illustrations, texts and colors) of print product. In this part, three types of proofing should be checked and printed out: the print-ready PDF files, the printer's proof and the imposition proof. Print-ready PDF files should be made after the layout using preflight at the printing house. The printer's proof should be printed out in high-resolution and checked by the customer. The imposition proof, which is usually done by the printers, should also be printed out to check and adjust the printing press.
5. Proofreading traditionally means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and     correct any errors. Modern proofreading often requires reading copy at earlier stages as well.
6. Screening and adjustment of a continuous-tone of images such as photographs.
7. Imposition, or the combination of many pages into a single signature form.
8.  Separation, or specifying images or text to be put on plates applying individual printing media (inks, varnishes, etc.) to a common print.
9. Manufacturing of plates the usage of different materials of plates should meet the needs of printing method. Usually rubber, plastic, aluminum is used for plates as well as film which is the photomechanical exposure and processing of light sensitive emulsion on a printing plate. Manufacturing of plates should be well planned and delivered beforehand. Also, the cost should be calculated as well.
10.          Manufacturing of a high-quality print (PDF) file, this is used for the final printing.
11.          Paper select, choosing a proper paper is also a very important step in prepress.

In most modern publishing environments, the tasks related to content generation and refinement are carried out separately from other prepress tasks, and are commonly characterized as part of graphic design. Some companies combine the roles of graphic design and prepress production into desktop publishing usually called DTP.
The set of procedures used in any particular prepress environment is known as a workflow. Workflows vary, depending on the printing process (e.g., letterpress, offset, digital printing, screen printing), the final product (books, newspapers, product packaging), and the implementation of specific prepress technologies. For example, it is not uncommon to use a computer and image-setter to generate film which is then stripped and used to expose the plate in a vacuum frame; this workflow is hybrid because separation and halftoning are carried out via digital processes while the exposure of the plate is an analog one. That demonstrates that the borders around the prepress are very fluid. Furthermore – depending on the printing method and the print product – the elements of the prepress of a graphic print production can differ from case to case. This circumstance requires a management of the workflow. It is necessary to manage the responsibility for each part of the workflow. That can mean that employees, who are actually responsible for other parts of the production (e.g. Layout), have to attend to parts of the prepress.


When most of the articles have been written, the editorial staff and/ordedicated· Layout staff typeset or lay out the pages using Quark XPress, Pagemaker or InDesign. Often the layout team, under the direction of the art director, focus on setting advert pages while the editorial team, under the direction of the editor, layout the article pages. This saves time because the writers of the articles don’t have to spend time passing their text on to someone else to do the layout. Difficult or complex articles to layout are usually given to the art director to arrange a suitable layout treatment.

Proof Reading

As laid out pages are completed, members of the editorial department will print them off and give them to the other members for proof reading. Next, they will mark up all the corrections onto one consolidated sheet and take in corrections on the DTP file. Once the corrections are taken in, an article will be printed out again for a second round of proof reading by the editorial department and any corrections previously missed will be incorporated into the publication. Once a section of pages is complete and has been checked for errors it is sent via ISDN (high-speed leased telecommunications line) or e-mailed across a broadband internet connection to the printers. If these facilities are not available it is copied onto CD, Syquest disk or Zip disk and biked to the print company producing the magazine. If there are photographs that the print company needs to scan these are normally sent in advance and marked with the crop and size required and where in the publication they are to be featured. Checking Printers’ Proofs When a section is sent to the printers they will generate and send back a printers’ proof of the pages to the editor (and art director) for checking. Some editors prefer to see the films rather than a printers’ proof for checking. Quite often mistakes will be allowed to go through unless they are truly horrendous because of the tight deadlines involved in magazine production.


Printing with regard to “print production” is the mechanical process of applying ink topaper using a printing press. The printing press is the most cost effective way of producing large volumes of printed materials due to its speed and the lower cost of paper. With the rapid improvement of office printing and high speed photocopying technology many companies will refer to the in-house production of large quantities of color copies or large-format prints as their “print production.


After a job is printed it always goes to a bindery stage, sometimes called “finishing.” This stage can include one or many steps depending on the end product: cutting (also called “trimming,”) folding, laminating, scoring, perforating, stitching (with wires or staples for magazines,) perfect binding (for paperback books,) spiral or plastic comb binding, and hardback bookbinding. The final step in the bindery stage includes packaging for delivery. A small job might be shrink wrapped; stacks of magazines are often strapped together so an entire stack can be picked up easily; and larger jobs can be boxed or crated, generally requiring a forklift to move them from the delivery truck.


Here again we have a number of extremes. Some jobs will either be picked up by the customer or delivered by the printer. In other cases, such as periodicals, they may be delivered to a specialized mailing facility, with some larger printers also having their own in-house mailing services. In this stage the addressee labels are applied or computer-imprinted from the customer’s mailing list database. For sophisticated direct mail packages, the computer imprinting can also include the recipient’s name as part of the letter to give it a personalized touch, using a mail-merge software program.
The final destination for direct mail projects would be the post office. In the case of letters, the mailing service would have prepared pre-sorted (by zip code) bundles and counts of letters; periodicals generally have 2nd-class indicia imprinted and are pre-sorted and weighed. The total postage is paid and from there on the postal service takes over until the materials are delivered.
Receiving and reviewing client specifications is the beginning of a print production job. The term “client specifications” refers to a wide range of so-called “clients.” In the case of a magazine publisher, for example, the publisher itself could be called the client with the goal of producing a specified quantity of magazine. Since most magazines have their own graphic design department, they would give that department the specifications and that department would begin the graphic design phase.
So what do these “print production” people do? You could say that their primary job function is usually managing “print jobs,” which also means they are managing all the stages required to produce a large volume of printed material. And depending on the type of printed material desired, these stages can include handling a number of different functions: graphic design, prepress operations, printing, bindery, packaging, or mailing.